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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-36

Characterization of Iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure: A prospective, multicentric, observational study from India

1 Associate Professor and Head of Department of Cardiology, S.S. Hospital, IMS BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Dr. Phadke's Hospital, Mahakali Caves Road, Andheri -East, Mumbai, India
3 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Gandhi Nagar Hospital, CCL, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
4 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Sunder Lal Jain Hospital, Ashok Vihar, Phase 3, New Delhi, India
5 Sr. Consultant Cardiologist, Director, Interventional Cardiology, Apollo Hospitals, Bhubaneswar, India
6 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Jupiter Hospital Thane, Shreeji Arcade, Mahanagr Palika Marg, Nitin Company Bus Stop, Thane (West), India
7 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Sri Balaji Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
8 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Sidhu Hospital, G.T.Road, Doraha, Ludhiana, India
9 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Balurghat District Hospital, West Bengal, India
10 Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Sooriya Hospital, No:1, Arunachalam Road, Velayutham Colony, Saligramam, Near AVM Studio, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dharmendra Jain
Associate Professor and Head of Department of Cardiology, SSH, IMS, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JICC.JICC_43_19

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Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the characteristics of iron deficiency (ID) in Indian patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving in patients visiting the outpatient department and admitted to hospitals with a clinical diagnosis of CHF falling within the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification (I–IV). ID was diagnosed based on hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin levels, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) percentage. Absolute ID was diagnosed as ferritin level <100 μg/L. Functional ID was diagnosed as normal serum ferritin (serum ferritin, 100–299 μg/L) in combination with TSAT (>20%). Anemia was defined as Hb <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women, based on the definition by the World Health Organization. Results: A total of 584 patients (men, 311 [53.25%]; women, 259 [44.35%]) with a mean age of 56.68 ± 14.53 years were evaluated. Absolute ID was noted in 314 (53.8%) patients. Female patients had a higher prevalence of absolute ID than male patients (51.3% vs. 46.5%; P < 0.0001). Patients with ID tended to be younger and predominantly belonged to NYHA Class II. The prevalence of anemia was higher in patients with ID than those without ID [167 (57.6%) vs. 123 (42.4%); P=0.0602]. The functional ID was present in 34 (6.34%) of patients, with a higher prevalence in female patients. Conclusion: More than half of the study population had ID. Female sex, younger age, and NYHA Class II of heart failure were some of the parameters that were associated with the presence of ID.

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