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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-77

Pathophysiology, etiology, and recent advancement in the treatment of congenital heart disease

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Campus Bhimtal, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Zoology, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jyoti Upadhyay
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University, Campus Bhimtal, Nainital, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JICC.JICC_11_19

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The most common birth anomaly occurring in infants is the congenital heart disease (CHD). It is the important cause of mortality and morbidity among children. The aim of this review is to conduct searches for peer-reviewed research papers published since 1980, with keywords “congenital heart defects,” “incidences,” “pathophysiology,” and “congenital anomalies.” Recent advances in the treatment of CHD have allowed many children to survive, causing a growing population of adults with the congenital heart defect. Lesser information exists regarding survival, prevalence, comorbidities, and late outcomes in this emerging group and several barriers hampers research in congenital heart defect. Some investigating research of congenital heart defect offers good opportunity in understanding and identifying high-risk population. This review provides an overview of the etiology, prevalence, pathophysiology, and advances in the treatment of congenital heart defect. Future research is needed to understand congenital heart defects, by the health-care providers and families, who are taking care of these patients. Experimental and epidemiological studies will provide us important information related to the physiology of congenital heart defects and identifying the etiological hypothesis behind it.

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